In order to get closer to my goal of reducing my dependence on centralized services, I decided to setup my own XMPP / Jabber server on a Linode VPS running Debian wheezy. I chose ejabberd since it was recommended by the RTC Quick Start website and here's how I put everything together.


My personal domain is and so I created the following DNS records:

jabber-gw            CNAME
_xmpp-client._tcp    SRV      5 0 5222
_xmpp-server._tcp    SRV      5 0 5269

Then I went to get a free TLS certificate for and

Let's Encrypt

The easiest way to get a certificate is to install certbot from debian-backports by adding the following to your /etc/apt/sources.list:

deb jessie-backports main contrib non-free

and then installing the package:

apt update && apt install certbot

Then, shutdown your existing webserver if you have one running and request a cert like this:

certbot certonly -d, --standalone

Once you have the cert, you can merge the private and public keys into the file that ejabberd expects:

cat /etc/letsencrypt/live/ /etc/letsencrypt/live/ > ejabberd.pem

and then restart the service:

systemctl restart ejabberd.service


I have also used StartSSL successfully. This is how I generated the CSR (Certificate Signing Request) on a high-entropy machine:

openssl req -new -newkey rsa:2048 -sha256 -nodes -out ssl.csr -keyout ssl.key -subj "/C=NZ/"

I downloaded the signed certificate as well as the StartSSL intermediate certificate and combined them this way:

cat ssl.crt ssl.key > ejabberd.pem

ejabberd installation

Installing ejabberd on Debian is pretty simple and I mostly followed the steps on the Ubuntu wiki with an additional customization to solve the Pidgin "Not authorized" connection problems.

  1. Install the package, using "admin" as the username for the administrative user:

    apt-get install ejabberd
  2. Set the following in /etc/ejabberd/ejabberd.yml (don't forget the trailing dots!):

             - "admin": ""
      - ""
    auth_password_format: scram
    fqdn: ""
  3. Copy the SSL certificate into the /etc/ejabberd/ directory and set the permissions correctly:

    chown root:ejabberd /etc/ejabberd/ejabberd.pem
    chmod 640 /etc/ejabberd/ejabberd.pem
  4. Improve the client-to-server TLS configuration by adding starttls_required to this block:

        port: 5222
        ip: "::"
        module: ejabberd_c2s
        certfile: "/etc/ejabberd/ejabberd.pem"
        starttls: true
        starttls_required: true
          - "no_sslv3"
          - "no_tlsv1"
          - "no_tlsv1_1"
          - "cipher_server_preference"
        tls_compression: false
        dhfile: "/etc/ssl/ejabberd/dh2048.pem"
        max_stanza_size: 65536
        shaper: c2s_shaper
        access: c2s
    s2s_use_starttls: required_trusted
      - "no_sslv3"
      - "no_tlsv1"
      - "no_tlsv1_1"
      - "cipher_server_preference"
    s2s_dhfile: /etc/ssl/ejabberd/dh2048.pem
  5. Create the required dh2048.pem file:

    openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/ejabberd/dh2048.pem 2048
  6. Restart the ejabberd daemon:

    /etc/init.d/ejabberd restart
  7. Create a new user account for yourself:

    ejabberdctl register me P@ssw0rd1!
  8. Open up the following ports on the server's firewall:

    iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 5222 -j ACCEPT
    iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 5269 -j ACCEPT
  9. Optionally create a cronjob in /etc/cron.d/restart-ejabberd to restart ejabberd once a day to ensure it doesn't stop responding to requests after running for a while:

    0 4 * * *      root    /bin/systemctl restart ejabberd.service

Note that if you'd like to be able to talk to contact via the GMail XMPP server, you will unfortunately need to change the s2s_use_starttls setting in step 3 to the following:

  s2s_use_starttls: optional

Client setup

On the client side, if you use Pidgin, create a new account with the following settings in the "Basic" tab:

  • Protocol: XMPP
  • Username: me
  • Domain:
  • Password: P@ssw0rd1!

and the following setting in the "Advanced" tab:

  • Connection security: Require encryption

From this, I was able to connect to the server without clicking through any certificate warnings.


If you want to make sure that XMPP federation works, add your GMail address as a buddy to the account and send yourself a test message.

In this example, the XMPP address I give to my friends is

Finally, to ensure that your TLS settings are reasonable, use this automated tool to test both the client-to-server (c2s) and the server-to-server (s2s) flows.