I recently ran into problems with generating TOTP 2-factor codes on my laptop. The fact that some of the codes would work and some wouldn't suggested a problem with time keeping on my laptop.

This was surprising since I've been running NTP for a many years and have therefore never had to think about time synchronization. After realizing that ntpd had stopped working on my machine for some reason, I found that systemd provides an easier way to keep time synchronized.

The new systemd time synchronization daemon

On a machine running systemd, there is no need to run the full-fledged ntpd daemon anymore. The built-in systemd-timesyncd can do the basic time synchronization job just fine.

However, I noticed that the daemon wasn't actually running:

$ systemctl status systemd-timesyncd.service 
● systemd-timesyncd.service - Network Time Synchronization
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/systemd-timesyncd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
  Drop-In: /lib/systemd/system/systemd-timesyncd.service.d
           └─disable-with-time-daemon.conf
   Active: inactive (dead)
Condition: start condition failed at Thu 2017-08-03 21:48:13 PDT; 1 day 20h ago
     Docs: man:systemd-timesyncd.service(8)

referring instead to a mysterious "failed condition". Attempting to restart the service did provide more details though:

$ systemctl restart systemd-timesyncd.service 
$ systemctl status systemd-timesyncd.service 
● systemd-timesyncd.service - Network Time Synchronization
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/systemd-timesyncd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
  Drop-In: /lib/systemd/system/systemd-timesyncd.service.d
           └─disable-with-time-daemon.conf
   Active: inactive (dead)
Condition: start condition failed at Sat 2017-08-05 18:19:12 PDT; 1s ago
           └─ ConditionFileIsExecutable=!/usr/sbin/ntpd was not met
     Docs: man:systemd-timesyncd.service(8)

The above check for the presence of /usr/sbin/ntpd points to a conflict between ntpd and systemd-timesyncd. The solution of course is to remove the former before enabling the latter:

apt purge ntp

Enabling time synchronization with NTP

Once the ntp package has been removed, it is time to enable NTP support in timesyncd.

Start by choosing the NTP server pool nearest you and put it in /etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf. For example, mine reads like this:

[Time]
NTP=ca.pool.ntp.org

before restarting the daemon:

systemctl restart systemd-timesyncd.service 

That may not be enough on your machine though. To check whether or not the time has been synchronized with NTP servers, run the following:

$ timedatectl status
...
 Network time on: yes
NTP synchronized: no
 RTC in local TZ: no

If NTP is not enabled, then you can enable it by running this command:

timedatectl set-ntp true

Once that's done, everything should be in place and time should be kept correctly:

$ timedatectl status
...
 Network time on: yes
NTP synchronized: yes
 RTC in local TZ: no